Clément-Auguste Andrieux.  La bataille de Waterloo. 18 juin 1815

Waterloo and the Advent of Pax Britannica

On the morning of 18 June 1815, few could have guessed that a sleepy village twenty kilometers south of Brussels would be thrust to prominence. The Battle of Waterloo, an epic clashing of arms, saw Napoleonic France face a coalition of Belgian, British, Dutch and German, Dutch troops under the command of the Duke of Wellington. Late on the morning of 18 June, a sizable … Continue reading Waterloo and the Advent of Pax Britannica

Kaiser Wilhelm and Franz Joseph on German Postcard. 2014. Source: Imperial War Museums

​Is Germany to Blame for the First World War?

The First World War is one of the great human catastrophes of world history. It ushered in a century of conflict, on a scale, and of a scope, never before seen. It has been 100 years since World War I began. Since it began, in the sordid summer of 1914, debate has surrounded its origins. The issue has yet to be resolved. There is no … Continue reading ​Is Germany to Blame for the First World War?

Raynal 1780

What Was Raynal’s Message To The World?

Raynal’s dauntless argument centers around the belief that liberty is an inherent right granted to men on all levels of the societal structure. Without the power of freedom, man is only as equal to a dog without any will, forced at the command of his master. Yet the unmistakable difference between the master and the slave, is that the master’s only power is to unshackle … Continue reading What Was Raynal’s Message To The World?

Public Domain

Lenin’s Failed Revolution

Many contemporary historians argue that history will always favor the October Revolution, of 1917, as a socialist victory. To deny this overstatement is not historical revisionism. Rather, it is a broader understanding of Marxian principles of and the application of Communist theoretical dialectics. Lenin’s Revolution was an obvious deviation from the standard Marxian “laws of development”, and even the idea of “the dictatorship of the … Continue reading Lenin’s Failed Revolution

Anne of Britanny

The Funeral of Anne of Brittany

by: Susan Abernethy Anne, Duchess of Brittany had been crowned twice as the Queen of France. She married King Charles VIII and when he died, she married King Louis XII. She suffered through a long and complicated pregnancy history with only two daughters surviving. One of her daughters, Claude, would also be Queen of France. When Anne was thirty-six, she began to suffer from kidney disease. … Continue reading The Funeral of Anne of Brittany

Queen Victoria in her youth.

5 Facts You Probably Do Not Know About Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria, the longest serving monarch in British history, was perhaps also one of the most complex women to have taken a role of leadership. Known for her stringency and conservatism, she ruled as Queen from 1837 to 1901. Having been crowned at the frail age of 18, she was thrown into the world of Royal dominion with its burdens and difficulties. It was her … Continue reading 5 Facts You Probably Do Not Know About Queen Victoria

Jews Being Arrested in 1941

The Synthesis of Functionalism and Intentionalism Through Human Experience: Victims and Perpetrators in The Jassy Pogrom

To try and provide a concrete definition of the synthesis of intentionalism and functionalism is perhaps one of the most difficult things in the historical study of the Shoah. The idea behind the synthesis itself is not the most popular precisely because of its complexity, and sheer convolution of an excessive amount of variables. The truth is that it is impossible to define the synthesis model, but it is … Continue reading The Synthesis of Functionalism and Intentionalism Through Human Experience: Victims and Perpetrators in The Jassy Pogrom

English: The German Army Before the First World War
A German cavalry patrol rides out of the Citadel at Ham.
Date	(Pre-1914)
Public Domain

Heinrich Class ‘ Influence On The Alldeustcher Verband

“We must pursue an active foreign policy, in a word, an aggressive one” -Heinrich Claß, If I were Kaiser,1912.  In 1916, as the German Army made significant headway across the Eastern Front, Western newspapers quoted the Alldeutscher Verband as calling the war one for the “struggle for existence”, this, of course, without any surprise as the Verband profusely advocated the idea that “men [were] divided into the weak … Continue reading Heinrich Class ‘ Influence On The Alldeustcher Verband

Deutsch: Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este. Portrait von Karl Pietzner d.Ä. (1853-1927)[1]
English: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
Ferdinand's assassination marked the end of the "handlebar" moustache being worn by military officials. Infantry soldiers would continue to wear the style up until the end of World War I. The style would not make a comeback until the contemporary hipster subculture of the 1990s.
Source	Published in: The War of the Nations (New York), December 31, 1919. Newspaper Pictorials, The war of the nations : portfolio in rotogravure etchings : compiled from the Mid-week pictorial, New York : New York Times, Co., 1919.

The Library of Congress - American Memory, Call number D522 .W28 1919
Public Domain

Sarajevo, 100 Years On

It is one of those rare days that come to define a century. Sunday 28 June 1914. The day the first shots of what would become the Great War were fired. World War I was not inevitable. We should not read history backwards. The assassinations at Sarajevo were a crossroad, not a way station, on the road to Armageddon. The catastrophe that fell upon Europe … Continue reading Sarajevo, 100 Years On